What is Arduino UNO ?

Arduino UNO is an Microcontroller.

There are many Microcontrollers present in the market and an Arduino UNO is one of them and it is widely used.

Arduino UNo R3
Arduino UNO

What are Microcontroller’s ?

A Microcontroller is also called a mini computer, where you can connect different Input and Output Devices.

To get a clear Idea on the working and role of Microcontrollers, we compare it with computers

All the Components are placed in a single Board.It has an individual place for different components of the computer, like Processor Unit, ROM, graphics card, Power Supply unit.
Input devices – programming cable, switches, push buttons, dials, potentiometer, I/o Pins, sensorsInput devices – Computer mouse, keyboard, joystick, webcam, Scanner
Output devices – Serial monitor, LED’s, DC Motors, Servo’s, I/O Pins, LCD Display, OLED Display etc…..Output devices – Monitor, Printer, Speaker, Headphone, Plotter etc……
Interfaced by Embedded systemsInterfaced by Operating systems
Used for running Embedded programs, interfacing sensors, electronic components, LCD Display’s Used for Calculations, Coding, Web-Surfing, Word Processing, Programming Microcontroller, etc…..
Microcontrollers are used in smart Fridges, Automatic Washing Machine’s, Cleaning Robots, Home Automation, Electronic Toys,Car, Bike dashboard systems etc….Computers are used in Offices, Schools, Banks, Laboratories etc….
”Microcontroller vs Computer”

So now we would have got an Idea of what is Microcontroller when we compare it with a computer

ARDUINO BOARD HISTORY( Source : Wikipedia)

The Arduino project began in 2005 as a tool for students at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy,[2] aiming to provide a low-cost and easy way for novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such devices intended for beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats and motion detectors.

Fun Fact = The name Arduino comes from a bar in Ivrea, Italy, where some of the founders of the project used to meet.

The bar was named after Arduin of Ivrea, who was the margrave of the March of Ivrea and King of Italy from 1002 to 1014.

What is Arduino Board ?

An Arduino (/ɑːrˈdwiːnoʊ/) Board is an open-source hardware and software Microcontroller

Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced to various sensors, breadboard, expansion boards etc… The microcontrollers can be programmed using the C and C++ programming languages, using the software Arduino IDE or MBlock

What is Arduino UNO ?

An Arduino UNO is the first and best selling model of Arduino microcontroller’s, it can be used widely for various purposes like teaching embedded systems, making working models, electronic projects and much more

Types of Arduino Boards –

Though Arduino UNO is mostly used for general purposes, there are arduino’s for specific purposes also like-

  1. Want a light weight and space effective Arduino? – Arduino NANO, PRO mini, Micro are the model for you
  2. Want a Arduino with lots of I/O Pins? – Arduino MEGA is the one for you
  3. Want a circle shaped Arduino? – Arduino LILLYPAD etc…


Pinout Details of Arduino Uno

”Pin Out specifications”

Pinout explanation –


We can use voltage rating from from 7v to 12v supply to power the arduino


The USB Cable is used to program the Arduino


There are 2 Ports from where you can draw power from the board, which are 3.3v and 5v and GND respectively.

I/O Peripherals

Analog Data Pins– also called Pulse width modulation pins are present from A0-A5

Digital Data Pins– there are 14 Digital Pins in Arduino UNO


This Button Reboot the Program present in the Arduino Board


A basic LED Blink using Arduino

Components Required:

 Arduino Uno R31
220 Ω Resistor1
Red LED1
Arduino Cable1


The positive side of Led Anode (Long Lead) Connected with help of “220 Ohms Resistor” Connected to Arduino Uno R3 Board Pin Number 13.

Negative side of Led Cathode (Short Lead) Connected to Arduino Uno R3 Board Ground (Gnd) Pin.


void setup()
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);

void loop()
  // turn the LED on (HIGH is the voltage level)
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
  delay(1000); // Wait for 1000 millisecond(s)
  // turn the LED off by making the voltage LOW
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);
  delay(1000); // Wait for 1000 millisecond(s)


We use the Arduino IDE software to upload this code

to download the arduino IDE software follow the Link given below :

How to Setup Arduino IDE – Robobharat

After downloading and writing the code in the software-

you should select the type of Arduino board in the Tools Option>Board>Arduino Uno

Go to Tools>Port>Serial Ports, for selecting the Port to which Arduino is connected

This happens automatically when you select ”detect port automatically” while installing the software

or You can choose the port.

After this We Upload the Program to the Arduino Board by clicking the Upload Button which is a Right hand side facing arrow

Now you can see the Output on the Arduino UNO !


You can see it work in this Simulation


Just click on ”Simulate”.

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