Line Follower Robot

A line follower robot is a moving robot which can travel in a fixed path set by the user, the path is usually a black gloss tape in the desired shape and it works on the mechanism of continuous feedback mechanism from the IR sensor module to the motors. We can make use of this concept in many ways, for example-

a. Adding a microcontroller and an Utrasonic sensor to make it capable of obstacle avoiding.

b.Adding a robotic hand to make it a serving robot

c. Installing maps and directions to make it a guidance robot, etc.


L293D Motor Drive

IR Sensor module

3 wheel Robo chasis

Jumper wires

9V Battery


As we know the Line Follower robo works on the principle of continuous feedback mechanism.

The continuous feedback is provided by IR module which controls the motors

As you can see in the top image, we can see the reflection of sensor light on the tape, so when the sensor comes near the black object the motor runs

The transparent LED in IR module is the Infrared LED which emits IR rays and the Black coloured LED is the IR Sensor(photodiode) which detects the IR rays emitted by the IR LED

when Infrared ray is detected by the IR sensor, the sensor module gives a high (1) output . Which makes the robot move,

when the robot is required to make a turn , the robo with two sensors can turn 90 degrees. When a 90 degree turn is approched by the robot one sensor is switched off, so one wheel of the robot stops spinning and the robot turns

USE CASES (Applications)

1.can be used to distribute goods in different paths set by the user.

2.can be used as a guide robot to show directions in large areas with multiple stations, junctions and venues.

3.can be used as a conveyor belt in space compromised areas, as it could be removed from its place unlike conventional conveyor belts (they are fixed at one place).

4.serving corona positive patients with food and the needy without the fear of virus transmission.

1. The path of the line follower can be easily changed whenever required by drawing the line in desired way.

2. The pathway can also be used for other purposes while the line followers in working, thereby utilising the whole space efficiently . Perfect for space constrained areas.

3. Can be used as a serving robot in offices or institutions where there is a cubicle setup and employees places are fixed so the path of the robot can be set a according to the order of employees and serve them what the need .

4. As the jobs like serving,guiding,transporting can be done by these robots it is very cost effecient and safe in the times of pandemic also

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